Scientific References

Recommended Reading

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. McMillan. The bestselling introduction to the world of the autopilot (system 1) and the pilot (system 2) by Nobel Prize laureate Daniel Kahneman.
(click here to go to book on Amazon)

Wilson, T. D. (2004). Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. A highly readable introduction to the science of the autopilot with many references and further scientific studies on the 'new unconscious'.
(click here to go to book on Amazon)

Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Social cognitive neuroscience: A review of core processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 259-89. Sound overview of the neural basis of the autopilot and the pilot.
(click here to open pdf)

Hassin, R. R. /Uleman, J. S. /Bargh, J. A. (2005). The New Unconscious. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Comprehensive review of research into the new unconscious. Aimed at those more interested in the science.
(click here to go to book on Amazon)

Ariely, D., Norton, M.I. (2009). How Concepts Affect Consumption. Harvard Business Review. Summary of the concepts affecting consumption by the well-known behavioural economist Dan Ariely.
(click here for access to paper)

Sommer, S. (2011). Situations Matter: Understanding How Context Transforms Your World. Riverhead Hardcover. Written by a social psychologist, this book shows how situations and context shape our decisions.
(click here to go to book on Amazon)

Thaler, R.H. & Sunstein, C.R. (2009). Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness. Penguin. Standard reference work on the application of behavioural economics in society and politics.
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Ratneshwar, S. et al. (Hrsg.) (2000). The Why of Consumption. Contemporary perspectives on consumer motives, goals and desires. Routledge. Gives a good overview of the science of consumer goals.
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Moskowitz, G. & Grant, H. (Hsg.) (2009). The Psychology of Goals. New York: The Guilford Press. Current reference work on the psychology of goals. Shows very clearly the connection of goals with signals and the integration of motivation and cognition in the brain. Also shows that, and how, goals are regulated implicitly.
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Bazerman, M.H. (2006). Judgment in Managerial Decision Making. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. In this major work Harvard Professor Bazerman describes what effects the implicit system has on the decision-making behaviour of managers.
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Further reading

Ackermann, J. M., Nocera, C. C., & Bargh, J. A. (2010). Incidental Haptic Sensations Influence Social Judgements and Decisions. Science, 328, 1712– 1715. This article shows the interaction of haptic perception with cognitive processing, and the implications for our decisions and our behaviour.

Arana, F.S., Parkinson, A., Hinton, E., Holland, A.J., Owen A.M, Roberts, A.C. (2003). Dissociable Contributions of the Human Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Cortex to Incentive Motivation and Goal Selection. Journal of Neuroscience, 23 (29), S. 9632-9638. Shows the central role of the orbito-frontal cortex in decision making.

Ariely, D. (2010). Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. Harper Collins. A well written introduction to the implicit influences on our behaviour by one of the leading behavioural economists.

Bar, M. (2004). Visual Objects in Context. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, Vol. 5, 617-629. Shows that object recognition is heavily influenced by contextual information.

Barrett, L.F. and Bar, M. (2009). See it with feeling: affective predictions during object perception. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 364, 1325–1334. Shows that perception is heavily influenced by valuation.

Berns, G.S. and Moore, S.E. (2012). A Neural Predictor of Cultural Popularity. Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 22, Issue1, 154-160. The study shows that activity in the reward centre in the brain is correlated with purchases even on a population level.

Berridge, K.C. & Robinson, T.E. (2003). Parsing reward. Trends in Neurosciences, 26(9), 507-513, 2003. Good overview of the neurobiological and psychological reward systems.

Christensen, C.M., Cook, S., and Hall, T. (2009). Marketing Malpractice: The Cause and the Cure. Harvard Business Manager. Brilliant article about the role of consumer goals for segmentation, new product development and marketing in general.

Cialdini, R.B. (2006). Influence: The Psychology Of Persuasion. Harper Business. The best-selling book by American social psychologist and consultant Robert Cialdini shows how the autopilot is noticeable in everyday life.

Cunningham W.A. et al. (2011). Orbitofrontal cortex provides cross-modal valuation of self-generated stimuli. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. An exciting study that provides evidence that the frontal lobe not only assesses real products, but also mental concepts, for their relevance. Also confirms the finding that the brain uses a common currency, that of 'wanting to have'.

Custers, R. & Aarts, H. (2010). The Unconscious Will: How the Pursuit of Goals Operates Outside of Conscious Awareness. Science, 329, 47 – 50. Accounts of various experiments that show behaviour is regulated by implicit goals.

de Araujo, I. E., Rolls, E. T., Velazco, M. I., Margot, C., & Cayeux, I. (2005).Cognitive modulation of olfactory processing. Neuron, 46(4), 671–679. Verbal labels change the subjective pleasantness and neuronal activation of scents.

De Martino, B. et al. (2009). The Neurobiology of Reference-Dependent Value Computation. Journal of Neuroscience, 29 (12), 3833– 3842. Shows that willingness to pay depends on the implicit context.

Deppe, M., Schwindt,W., Krämer, J., Kugel, H., Plassmann, H., Kenning, P., Ringelstein, E.B. (2005). Evidence for a Neural Correlate of a Framing Effect: Bias-specific Activity in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex During Credibility Judgments. Brain Research Bulletin, 67, S. 413-421. Focuses on the framing effect for media brands at the neuronal level.

Degonda, N.,Mondadori, C.R.A., Bosshardt, S., Schmidt, C.F., Boesiger, P., Nitsch, R., Hock, C., Henke Westerholt, K. (2005). Implicit Associative Learning Engages the Hippocampus and Interactions with Explicit Associative Learning. Neuron, Vol. 46, S. 505-520. This article defines the foundation of cultural implicit learning processes in the hippocampus and their influence on conscious learning.

Dijksterhuis, A./Maarten, W. B./Nordgren, L. F./van Baaren, R. B. (2006). On Making the Right Choice: The Deliberation-Without-Attention-Effect. Science, 311, S. 1005.

Dijksterhuis, A. & Arts, H. (2010). Goals, Attention, and (Un)Consciousness. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 467 – 490. Very good insight and overview of the finding that our goals are implicitly regulated and that attention and consciousness in the brain are two separate things.

Duhigg, C. (2012). The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business. Random House. Excellent introduction to the power of habits.

Earls, M. (2007). Herd? – How to Change Mass Behaviour by Harnessing Our True Nature. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Former Planner Mark Earls received an award for his article in which he attacks the individualistic view of marketing and stresses the social nature of man. This book, a great read, arose from that article.

Elder, R. S. and Krishna, A. (2011). The "Visual Depiction Effect" in Advertising: Facilitating Embodied Mental Simulation through Product Orientation. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 38. 1-17. The way products are shown in ads greatly influences persuasion through embodied mental simulations.

Fitzsimons, G. /Hutchinson, J. W. /Williams, P. (2002). Non-Conscious Influences on Consumer Choice. Marketing Letters, 13, S. 269–279.

Franzen, G. /Bouwman, M. (2001). The Mental World of Brands. Trowbridge: Cromwell Press. A very thorough introduction to the world of brands in neural networks.

Gallese, V. & Lakoff, G. (2005). The Brain's concepts: The role of the sensory-motor system in conceptual knowledge. Cognitive Neuropsychology. A linguist and a neuroscientist, both top experts in their fields, put the relevant findings from "embodied cognition" together, to explain how the body structures our mental world.

Gigerenzer, G. (2008). Gut Feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious. Penguin Books. Excellent overview on how intuition works and helps in decision-making.

Gigerenzer, G., Todd P.M. and ABC Research Group (2000). Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart. Oxford University Press. This book provides a deep dive into the world of heuristics.

Gosling, S. D., Ko, S. J., Mannarelli, T., & Morris, M. E. (2002). A Room with a cue: Judgments of personality based on offices and bedrooms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 379-398. Our autopilot easily decodes the personalities of people simply from pictures of their homes.

Graves, P. (2011). Consumer-ology: The Market Research Myth, the Truth about Consumers and the Psychology of Shopping. Nicholas Brealey Pub. This book illustrates the implications for market research of the implicit decision-making level.

Hanks, A. S., Just, D.R., Smith, L.E., and Wansink, B. (2012), "Healthy Convenience: Nudging Students Toward Healthier Choices in the Lunchroom," Journal of Public Health. Describes the canteen experiment (at the beginning of chapter 4) and shows how changes to the decision interface influence decision-making.

Hare TA et al. (2008). Dissociating the role of the orbitofrontal cortex and the striatum in the computation of goal values and prediction. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 5623 – 5630. Shows the frontal lobe's neural basis for the assessment of target value (goal value) and its importance in making decisions.

Heath, R. (2012). Seducing the Subconscious: The Psychology of Emotional Influence in Advertising. Wiley-Blackwell. Provides an in-depth overview on implicit advertising effects, including implicit learning and peripheral perception.

Helbig, H. et al. (2010). Action observation can prime visual object recognition. Experimental Brain Research, 200, 251 – 258. Shows how gestures help in the identification of objects.

Irmak, C. et al. (2005). The Placebo Effect in Marketing: Sometimes You Just Have to Want It to Work. Journal of Marketing Research, 42, 406– 409. Shows the placebo effect of an energy drink in increasing blood pressure.

Isanski, B. & West, C. (2010). The Body of Knowledge. Understanding Embodied Cognition. Observer. Very good and clear summary of the current knowledge on 'embodied cognition' from the journal Observer of the Association for Psychological Science.

Kahneman, D./Frederick, S. (2002). Representativeness revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. In: Gilovich, T. /Griffin, D. /Kahneman, D. (Eds.) Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. S. 67–83.

Kahneman, D. (2002).Maps of bounded rationality. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2002/kahneman-lecture.html. The Nobel Prize acceptance speech by Daniel Kahneman, to which we refer in the first part of this book. The web link offers a video of this exciting presentation.

Kaufman, S. B. et al. (2010). Implicit learning as an ability. Cognition. Shows how the brain learns, through implicit learning of environmental statistics, and how this implicit learning corresponds with intelligence.

Knutson, B., Rick, S.,Wimmer, E., Prelec, D., Loewenstein, G. (2007). Neural Predictors of Purchases. Neuron, 53, 147-156. Shows that the reward system is activated when viewing products and brands whereas, in contrast, price activates the pain centre.

Martin A. (2007).The representation of object concepts in the brain. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 58, 25 – 45, 2007. Very well-founded overview of how the brain organises mental concepts.

Martin, N. (2008). Habit: The 95% of Behavior Marketers Ignore. FT Press. Good overview of the power of habits and how to use them to good effect in marketing.

McClure, S. M. /Li, J. /Tomlin, D. /Cypert, K. S. /Montague, L. M. /Montague, P. R. (2004). Neural Correlates of Behavioral Preference for Culturally Familiar Drinks. Neuron, 44, S. 379–287.

Moerman, D. (2009). Meaning, Medicine, and the „Placebo Effect". Cambridge University Press. This highly recommended book demonstrates, clearly and concisely, the subtle and powerful effects of codes in medicine, including the placebo effect of aspirin packaging.

Nunes, J. C. and Drèze, X. (2006). The Endowed Progress Effect: How Artificial Advancement Increases Effort. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 32, 504-512. Investigates the effect that we are much more likely to complete a process if that process has already been started (the car wash example in chapter 4).

Novemsky, N. et al. (2007). The Effect of Preference Fluency on Consumer Decision Making. Journal of Marketing Research, 19, 347 – 356. The authors show that the legibility of a font affects the purchasing decision.

Plassmann, H. et al. (2007). Orbitofrontal Cortex Encodes Willingness to Pay in Everyday Economic Transactions. Journal of Neuroscience, 27 (37), 9984 – 9988. Neuroscientific experiments, showing that the willingness to pay is regulated in the frontal lobe.

Plassmann, H., O'Doherty, J., Shiv, B., & Rangel, A. (2008). Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 105(3), 1050–1054. Shows that prices influence neuronal activation of the reward centre, for example the same wine triggers higher activation when framed with a higher price.

Pieters, R. and Wedel, M. (2012). Ad Gist: Ad Communication in a Single Eye Fixation. Marketing Science, 59-73. Shows that in some ads, brand and product can be recognised in as little as 100 milliseconds – even when the ad is blurred.

Quiroga, Q. R./Reddy, L./Kreiman, G./Koch, C./Fried, I. (2005). Invariant Visual Representation by Single Neurons in the Human Brain. Nature, 435, S. 1102–1107 (The Halle-Berry-Neuron).

Raghubir, P. and Krishna, A. (1999). Vital Dimensions in Volume Perception: Can the Eye fool the Stomach? Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 26, No 3, 313-326. Investigates the fact that consumers judge volume based on the elongation of a package.

Rajagopal, R., Walker, R., Hoyer, W., "The 'Unhealthy = Tasty' Intuition and Its Effects on Taste Inferences, Enjoyment, and Choice of Food Products," Journal of Marketing, 70 (4). Uses an implicit measurement technique to show that people employ an implicit rule 'unhealthy = tasty' and that this is widely reflected in their behaviour.

Rolls, E. T. (2006). Emotions Explained. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Edmund T. Rolls is one of the leading neuroscientists and his speciality is the reward system in the brain, especially the orbitofrontal cortex. The book is aimed at those with a scientific interest and gives a thorough and comprehensive overview of what drives us: the pursuit of rewards.

Schaefer, M., & Rotte, M. (2007). Favourite brands as cultural objects modulate reward circuit. Neuroreport, 18(2), 141–145. These experiments show that brands activate the reward centre in the brain, and how they do this.

Schnall, S., Benton, J., & Harvey, S. (2008). With a clean conscience: Cleanliness reduces the severity of moral judgements. Psychological Science, 19, 1219 – 1222. Shows the interaction between physical and moral cleanliness.

Seymour, B. and McClure, S.M. (2008). Anchors, scales and the relative coding of value in the brain. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 18,1-6. Discusses the relativity of value from a neuroscience perspective.

Shapiro, S. (1999). When an Ad's Influence is Beyond Our Conscious Control: Perceptual and Conceptual Fluency Effects Caused By Incidental Ad Exposure, Journal of Consumer Research, 26 (June), S. 16–36. Shows that ads can influence decisions even when processed by the autopilot.

Song, H. & Schwarz, N. (2008). If it´s hard to read, it´s hard to do. Processing fluency affects effort prediction and motivation. Psychological Science, 19, 986 – 988. Shows the effect of typography on cognition.

Stoll, M., Baecke, S. & Kenning, P. (2008). What they see is what they get? An MRI-Study on neural correlates of attractive packaging, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 7, 342 – 359. A neuroscientific study showing the neural effects of attractive packaging.

Strahan, E. J. /Spencer, S. J. /Zanna, M. P. (2002). Subliminal Priming and Persuasion: Striking While the Iron Is Hot. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, S. 556–568.

Sutherland, R. (2011). The Wiki Man. Ogilvy Digital Labs. An introduction to the thinking and ideas of one of the leading marketing figures. Includes a liberal dose of behavioural economics insights.

Robin J. Tanner and Ahreum Maeng. "A Tiger and a President: Imperceptible Celebrity Facial Cues Influence Trust and Preference." Journal of Consumer Research: December 2012.

Tusche, A., Bode, S., & Haynes, J. D. (2010). Neural responses to unattended products predict later consumer choices. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(23), 8024–8031. Consumer choices could be predicted equally well in a low attention group as they can in a high attention group. This suggests that neural evaluation of products and associated choice-related processing does not necessarily depend on attentional processing of available stimuli. Overall, the present findings emphasise the potential of implicit, automatic processes in guiding even important and complex decisions.

Vogt J, De Houwer J, Moors A, Van Damme S, Crombez G. (2010). The automatic orienting of attention to goal-relevant stimuli. Acta Psychologica, 134(1), 61-69. Shows that, and how, attention is based on goal-relevance.

Wansink, B. (2006), Mindless Eating – Why We Eat More Than We Think, New York: Bantam–Dell. Brilliant overview of the influence of implicit processing on the consumption of food by one of the leading researchers in this field.

Wansink, B., van Itterrsum, K. and Painter, J.M. (2005). How descriptive food names bias sensory perceptions in restaurants, Food Quality and Preference, 16:5, 393–400. Shows how verbal labels can frame and influence the perceived quality of food.

Wedel, M. & Pieters, R. (2007). Goal control of attention to advertising: the Yarbus implication. Journal of Consumer Research, 34, 224 – 233. Highly recommended article that shows the influence of goals on the processing of advertising.

Williams, L. E., & Bargh, J. A. (2008). Experiencing physical warmth promotes interpersonal warmth. Science, 322, 606 – 607. Shows the effect of temperature on mental concepts.

Yoon, C. et al. (2006). A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Neural Dissociations between Brand and Person Judgements. Journal of Consumer Research, 33, 31 – 40. Shows, in a neuroscience experiment, that, in the brain, brands are not seen as people but as objects.

Zhong, C.B., & Leonardelli, G.J. (2008). Cold and lonely: Does social exclusion literally feel cold? Psychological Science, 19, 838 – 842. The experiment, from chapter 5, showing the link between social exclusion and the consequent desire for a hot soup or hot coffee.

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